Research Objectives and Hypotheses
Research Objectives are statements of what the researcher intends to do. The objectives flow directly from the problem. They communicate what the researcher plans to do. Structurally, the objectives are seen as small particles which constitute the problem.
The problem may be stated broadly but the objective should be should be stated in more specific and measurable term:
For example in the problem, “ Students’ Extent of Exposure to Mass Media”…
The phrase “exposure to mass media” is broad. But to state the objective as … “ To determine the students’ frequency of reading newspaper,” frequency of reading newspapers is specific and measurable.
Research Objectives are usually stated in declarative form and starts with infinitives like:
1. to find out
2. to determine
3. to describe
4. to compare
5. to test
Some researchers ask research questions instead. Example
“This study aims to answer the following questions,” or
“this study sought to answer the following questions.’
The two types of Objective:
1. Immediate or general
The immediate or general objective specifies the activity that will take place and the variables that will be examined.
The Specific objectives may be viewed as sub-objectives or small particles of the general objective. The following should be examined in stating the specific objectives:
1. Specific variables
2. Variables expressed in measurable terms
3. Suggestion on the type of analysis to be done
Research Hypothesis A hypothesis is defined as an educated guess or a tentative answer to the research question . it is a statement about an expected relationship betwwn two variables.
Types of hypotheses (main categories)
A null hypothesis is a negative statement which indicate s no relationship nor correlation between two variables.
Given Objective: “determine whether there is a significant relationship between the extent of mass media exposure and attitude towards land reform among lowland farmers”
The Null Hypothesis: “ There is no significant relationship between the extent of mass media exposure and attitude towards land reform among lowland farmers.”
An alternative hypothesis is also called the research hypothesis . It is the positive form of the null hypothesis.
The Null Hypothesis: “ There is a significant relationship between mass media exposure and attitude towards land reform among lowland farmers.”
Other classifications of hypotheses
Directional vs. Non-directional hypotheses
A directional hypothesis states whether the relationship between two variables is direct (positive) or inverse (negative). A positive or direct relationship is present when the value of one variable increases with the increase in the value of another. A negative relationship is present when the value one variable increases as the value of other variable decreases.
“ The higher the level of exposure of farmers to mass media, the more favourable their attitude towards land refor”- - - - positive
“ The more time employees spend in meetings, the less productive they are.” - - - - negative
“ the higher the advertisement expenses of food establishments, the higher their monthly gross sales.”- - - - positive
A non-directional hypothesis does not specify the direction of relationship between variables. It merely states the presence or absence of a relationship between two variables or that one influences ( or does not influence) the other.
“The women’s educational attainment is significantly associated with their extent of participation in decision-making at home.”
Instruction: Given is a Sample Specific Objective. Provide the Following:
(1) A null hypothesis (2) a research hypothesis (3) a positive directional hypothesis (4) a negative directional hypothesis (5) a non-directional hypothesis.
Study Title: “Relationship Between TV Viewing and Academic Performance of Grade Six
Pupils in Private and Public Elementary Schools in Region VI”
The study will be conducted to determine the existence and degree of relationship between TV Viewing and Academic Performance of Grade Six Pupils in Private and Public Elementary Schools in Region VI”
Specifically, the study aims to:
determine whether there is a significant relationship between the pupils’ frequency of viewing TV and their average in all subjects in grade six.
Determine whether there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent by the pupils in viewing TV and their general average in all subjects in grade six.
Provide the required hypotheses for SO #1